Thursday, February 14, 2013

Exploring the Breath, Range, Character, Scope and Reception of Cyprian Ekwensi's Writings

Ekwensi one of Africa's a lot of abounding writers who died backward endure year and was active aboriginal this year, maintained a active autograph action throughout his life, publishing a accumulating of abbreviate stories, Cash On Delivery, his endure plan of fiction and commutual plan on his memoirs, titled, In My Time for several years on to his death. With over twenty novels, collections of belief and abbreviate novels to his name, Ekwensi's abreast captivation appropriately covered the Nigerian Civilian War from the angle of a announcer and activity in a pastoral Fulani ambience in Northern Nigeria.

Ekwensi's aboriginal appear plan was the novella, When Adulation Whispers, appear in 1948, ten years afore the abounding African novel, Achebe's Things Fall Apart, appeared in London. He was aggressive by affliction over his bootless attack to cloister a adolescent woman whose ancestor insisted that she makes a alliance of accessibility to address it. This short, ablaze affair formed allotment of what became accepted as the Onitsha Market academy of lurid fiction, and its success aggressive Ekwensi to abide in that aforementioned mode.

Ekwensi had already acclaimed himself by the several abbreviate belief he had accounting for advertisement on radio. These he afterwards put together, aural ten days, while on his way to Chelsea Academy of Pharmacy, London, to apprehend his aboriginal novel, People of the City, which Nigeria's arch newspaper, The Daily Times, appear in installments afore it appeared in book anatomy in 1954. but which was not appear in the United States until 15 years later. People of the City (1954) was the aboriginal West African atypical in avant-garde appearance English to be appear in England. It's advertisement appropriately apparent an important development in African abstract with Ekwensi acceptable one of the aboriginal African novelists to accept abounding acknowledgment in the West and eventually the a lot of abounding African novelist.

The actuality that Cyprian Ekwensi started his autograph career as a pamphleteer is reflected in the anecdotal attributes of People of the City (1954) a accumulating of belief strung calm but account like a novel, in which he gives a active account of the fast-paced activity in a West African city, Lagos. People of the City-limits which recounts the advancing to political acquaintance of a adolescent anchorman and bandage baton in an arising African country is abounding with his active annotation on the problems of bribery and bribery and absolution bedeviling such states. In it and several others, Ekwensi explores the lure, thrills and challenges of burghal life, and the acute allowance and abstract relationships biting the lives of migrants to the city, breadth close-ties commonly fostered by the connected ancestors arrangement of their acceptable societies aggregate a austere analysis on the aberrant lifestyles that acquisition abounding announcement in the city.

According to, Bernth Lindfors, none of Ekwensi's abounding works is absolutely chargeless from amateurish blots and blunders. Lindfors accordingly concludes that he could not alarm any "the accomplishment of a careful, accomplished craftsman." On his assuming of the moral absurdity in city-limits life, Bernth Lindfors, argued that "because his amiss heroines usually appear to bad ends, Ekwensi can be beheld as a austere moralist whose novels action apprenticeship in advantage by announcement the adverse after-effects of vice. But it consistently seems as if he is added absorbed in the carnality than in the advantage and that he aims to amuse as able-bodied as teach." While this appearance may be contested, it is actual that he consistently strove harder to ability his admirers in the a lot of actual and affectionate style. Indeed, it was to advance this that he clung to those capacity that afforded him the accumulation readership he so abounding craved

In a 1972 account by Lewis Nkosi, Ekwensi authentic his role as biographer thus: "I anticipate I am a biographer who commendations himself as a biographer for the masses. I don't anticipate of myself as a arcane stylist: if my appearance comes, that is just incidental, but I am added absorbed in accepting at the affection of the accuracy which the man in the artery can admit than in just spinning words."

Ernest Emenyonu, a Nigerian analyzer acclaimed for his accord appear Ekwensi, accuse that Ekwensi "has never been accurately adjourned as a writer."

Another affectionate critic,the abiding American catechumen to the abstraction of African Literature, Charles Larson, describes him as one of the a lot of abounding African writers of the twentieth century. According to Larson, Ekwensi "is apparently the a lot of widely-read biographer in Nigeria--perhaps even in West Africa--by readers whose arcane tastes accept not been apparent to the added circuitous writings of Chinua Achebe and added added accomplished African novelists."

Kole Omotoso accomplished President of Nigerian Association of Authors and Drama assistant at University of Ibadan accepted a constant allure with him afterwards account his novelette The Yaba Round about Murder as a child, for, as he confesses, it accomplished him the accent of amplitude in autograph fiction. Omotoso goes on to accompaniment that Ekwensi's above accent in Nigerian autograph is because he believed in himself and 'made us accept in ourselves.' The pan-Africanist camber of his writings and his publications accepting mostly in Nigeria were begin commendable. If abounding added African writers were in self-exile, he chose to abide in his built-in country, rather than reside abroad breadth publishing opportunities are added abundant.

While some advisers discounted Ekwensi's novels, others admired their amusing realism. Charles R. Larson put his plan in actual perspective: "Local blush is their forte, whether it be Ekwensi's city-limits of chaos, Lagos, or Onitsha ... ; the Nigerian clairvoyant is placed for the aboriginal time in a angle which has been ahead adopted in African fiction."

Placing Ekwensi's plan durably in the accepted idiom, Douglas Killam explained their importance: "Popular fiction is consistently cogent as advertence accepted accepted interests and morality. Ekwensi's plan is adored (although not adored as art) by his austere affair with the moral issues which acquaint abreast Nigerian life. As such they will consistently be accordant to Nigerian arcane history and to Nigerian tradition."

Ekwensi told belief that, like well-cooked onugbu (bitter leaf) soup, larboard a affable after-meal aroma on the palate. Through his works Ekwensi told us that a plan of fiction does not deserve that honourable name if it does not at aboriginal sight-...-arrest the clairvoyant like a cop's handcuffs..... I apprehend abounding of Ekwensi's books, and save for 'The Drummer Boy', which was a recommended argument if I was in inferior accessory academy in Plateau State, the others were apprehend because they are what a book-hungry body needs for sustenance. Who can, accepting been accomplished into the band of Ekwensi, overlook the revenge-driven Mallam Iliya, the sokugo-stricken Mai Sunsaye, the skirt-besotted Amusa Sango, the abominable belle, Jagua Nana (they don't actualize women like that any more, whether in fiction, on the telly, and apparently in absolute life); and the afflicted Ngozi and ballsy Pedro? They are my accompany for life.

Ekwensi did abounding added than actualize 'airport thrillers'. He told abounding belief that reside on in the hearts of all who encountered them. ( Henry Chukwuemeka Onyeama a Lagos-based biographer and teacher)

An Ibo, like Chinua Achebe, Ekwensi was built-in in 1921 in Minna, Niger State, in Northern Nigeria, but abounding accessory academy in a predominantly Yoruba area, Ibadan. He is actual accustomed with the abounding above indigenous groups in his country, and appropriately possesses a ability generally able-bodied exploited in his novels. He went on afterwards to Yaba Higher College in Ibadan and again confused over to Achimota College in Ghana breadth he advised forestry. For two years he formed as a forestry administrator and again accomplished science for a abrupt period. He again entered the Lagos Academy of Pharmacy. He afterwards connected at the University of London (Chelsea Academy of Pharmacy) during which aeon he wrote his ancient fiction, his aboriginal book-length publication Ikolo the Wrestler and Added Ibo Tale (1947) , appear in London. His writings acceptable him a abode in the National Media breadth he rose to Head of appearance in the Nigerian Broadcasting Services and ultimately acceptable its Director.

Several contest in Ekwensi's adolescence contributed afterwards to his writings. Although ethnically an Igbo, he was aloft a allotment of Hausa playmates and schoolmates and so batten both affiliated languages. He aswell abstruse of his ancestry through the abounding Igbo belief and legends that his ancestor told him, which he would afterwards broadcast in the accumulating Ikolo the Wrestler and Added Ibo Tales. In 1936 Ekwensi enrolled in the southern Nigerian accessory academy accepted as Government College, Ibadan, breadth he abstruse about Yoruba ability as able-bodied as absolute in English, math, science, and sports. He apprehend aggregate he could lay his easily on in the academy library, apperception on H. Rider Haggard, Charles Dickens, Jane Austen, Walter Scott, and Alexandre Dumas. He aswell wrote online autograph and belief for abounding academy publications, decidedly The Viking magazine.

During the afterwards allotment of his assignment as a backwoods administrator Ekwensi started admiring for the city. So alpha in 1947 he accomplished English, biology, and allure at Igbobi College abreast Lagos. To his classes he apprehend aloud manuscripts of books for children, Drummer Boy, Passport of Mallam Ilia, and Trouble in From Six, and abbreviate stories. Finally, afterwards decades of addition his autograph career by alive in broadcasting and accomplishing added accessible relations work, Ekwensi gave up his day jobs in 1984 to accompany autograph abounding time. He alternate to autograph developed novels, acrimonious and allotment from his claimed "archive" of beforehand accounting manuscripts abounding of which he revised into the novels Jagua Nana's Daughter, Motherless Baby, For a Roll of Parchment, and Divided We Stand, which were appear in the 1980s. For example, in For a Roll of Parchment he anecdotal his cruise from Nigeria to England, as he had in People of the City. He did, however, amend his actual to portray post-World War II Nigeria, with its faster paced life.

Sex, violence, intrigue, and abstruseness in a apparent abreast ambience a lot of generally in the fast-paced melting pot of the city-limits were accepted diet in Ekwensi's works abnormally in Jagua Nana, in which a actual carnal and awful adorable blaster year old Nigerian woman with assorted suitors avalanche in adulation with a adolescent teacher, Freddie. She agrees to forward him to abstraction law in England on the compassionate of their accepting affiliated on his return. About this admirable and absorbing prostitute, Ekwensi sets in motion a accomplished accoutrements of vibrant, amoral characters who accept drifted from their rural origins to grab the admirable pleasures of the city.

And the atypical itself shows us the ailing base of the big city, Lagos, breadth Jagua's favourite haunt, the Tropicana bar, sets the arena for abounding of the story.

Sometime, aback in the 1950s the Onitsha Market 'literary' mafia, strarted bearing and business openly, a semi-nude account of a ample Igbo boyish beauty, with the bold caption, "Beateam mee lee" - I cartel you to exhausted me!

Those were the prudish canicule of top moral ethics in Igboland and absolutely Nigeria , of Elizabethan appearance with cane-wielding primary academy agents and headmasters. The behind account beatific shockwaves appropriate down the spines of the accessible who, nonetheless, rushed to buy copies. Men who angry up their noses at the pictures in public, secretly bought, beheld and relished copies. boys did odd jobs for parents, and the money they acceptable were adored up to the one shilling amount of the picture, which they acclimated to acquirement it and again usually tucked it away, average books, abroad from the prying eyes of parents or the chic teacher, from breadth analytical peeks of the abundance could be sneeked occasionally, at its owner's risk, even in the average of a lesson. Acclaimed for churning out almanacs, with pictures of the famous, advance events, folk art, as able-bodied as such abstract as those of Ogali A. Ogali, columnist of the allegorical "Veronica My Daughter", the mafia knew breadth to draw the line. Sex, however, awash any day and age and the mafia knew this. But cipher capital to be articular with annihilation even accidentally pornographic. "Beateam mee lee" was therefore, at the time, the mother of all daring.

It was adjoin this accomplishments that Ekwensi took the Nigerian arcane arena by storm with the advertisement of the abominable Jagua Nana. Ekwensi's a lot of broadly apprehend novel, Jagua Nana, appear in 1961 alternate us to the area of People of the City but with a abounding added adamant artifice centered on Jagua, a coquette who had a adulation for the big-ticket as reflected in her name itself, which was a bribery of the big-ticket English automobile, Jaguar. Her activity personalizes the battle amid the old acceptable and avant-garde burghal Africa. Although Ekwensi had beforehand apparent the administration of his works with the publication, in 1954, of People of the City, it was Jagua (the advance appearance in this novel) that congenital the Ekwensi fable and affected a activity all its own, acceptable a folk hero of sorts. Jagua dared the account public. Ekwensi the artist, aswell had the abracadabra of acrimonious out names of his characters that were burning hits. They ashore like cement in the reader's anamnesis and helped breathing the fabulous personality. Bold, defiant, artistic and rendered with aberrant abstruse finesse, Jaguar Nana totally accustomed Ekwensi as the ultimate chronicler of Nigerian city-limits life.

Published in 1961, the atypical Jagua Nana, tells the chance of an crumbling prostitute alleged Jagua who tries to accommodate for herself aegis in her afterwards activity through her accord with a adolescent man. Yet while this adolescent man is belief law in England, Jagua involves herself in assorted activities, some dubious, some not. Jagua Nana, witnessed some advance in artifice superior and control, clashing what acquired in People Of The City, chronicling the adventures of an ageing prostitute in Lagos, in adulation with her plan and the big-ticket lifestyles, but who ends up in affliction and disappointment.

Ekwensi's attack to dust her up afterwards and conductor her into some anatomy of beatitude and accomplishment introduces the chance burden in his work, which manifests itself absolutely in the sequel, Jagua Nana's Babe (1987), breadth Jagua, afterwards a connected search, was able to reconnect with her educated, socially animated daughter, who had aswell had her own fair allotment of apart life. Both babe and mother were at the aforementioned time absorbed in a chance for alternate accomplishment and healing until they met fortuitously. In the end, afterwards she suffers sufficiently, Ekwensi allows her to accept happiness.

As was to be in several of his added novels, Ekwensi's academic is axiomatic and ameliorate is accessible for some characters. For example, in the afterwards atypical Iska Ekwensi portrayed a adolescent Ibo widow, Filia, who moves to Lagos afterwards her husband's death. There she tries to advance a admirable life. While she tries to get an apprenticeship and amenable employment, she encounters abounding obstacles, which acquiesce Ekwensi to appearance readers a advanced ambit of urbanites. Yet this novel, appear by a European press, could not attempt for acceptance with its predecessor, Jagua Nana, which acquired altercation for its aboveboard assuming of sexuality. If an Italian cine aggregation capital to blur Jagua Nana, the Nigerian government prevented this accomplishment fearing abrogating media portrayals of the country.

Talking about what aggressive him to address the plan in an interview, Ekwensi said: I was a pharmacy apprentice at the Yaba Higher College those canicule and I lived in the aforementioned admixture with a adolescent man who was actual romantic. He would never absence his night club for anything. We had a night club then, alleged Rex Club, run by the backward Rewane - the two Rewanes are asleep now, by the way and one of them was at Government College, Ibadan while the added one was a politician.

Now, abounding years later, I was alleged aloft to do a programme for the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) about night activity and I begin out that I had so abounding actual about this accountable that I could absolutely body it into a accomplished book. That was the inspiration.

Yet addition of his novels is Burning Grass (1961) a accumulating of vignettes giving acumen into the activity of a pastoral Fulani cattlemen ancestors of Northern Nigeria..The atypical and the characters are based in fact on a absolute ancestors with whom Ekwensi himself had ahead lived. For afterwards belief forestry at the Yaba Higher College in Lagos during Apple War II, Ekwensi began a two-year assignment as a forestry administrator which acclimatized him with the backwoods reserves,from which he was enabled to address such chance belief in rural settings as Burning Grass..

"In the canicule in the forest, I was able to bethink and write. That was if I absolutely began to address for publishing," he told Nkosi. The several months spent with the drifting Fulani people, afterwards became the capacity of Burning Grass.where he follows the adventures of Mai Sunsaye, who has Sokugo, a wanderlust, and of his family, who try to accomplishment him. While seeing his protagonists through assorted adventures, Ekwensi portrays the lives of the Fulani cattlemen. This aboriginal work, advised one of his added "serious" novels, was appear by Heinemann educational publishers and reissued in 1998

Two novellas for accouchement followed in 1960; both The Drummer Boy and The Passport of Mallam Ilia which were contest in aggregate acceptable capacity with apparent romanticism.

Between 1961 and 1966 Ekwensi appear at atomic one above plan every year. The a lot of important of these were the novels, Beautiful Feathers (1963) and Iska (1966), and two collections of abbreviate stories, Rainmaker (1965) and Lokotown (1966).

Beautiful Accoutrement (1963) reflects the nationalist and pan-Africanist alertness of the pre-independence canicule of the 1950s and how the adolescent hero's active charge to his ideal leads to the abrasion of his family, appropriately accent the adage alluded to in the title: "however acclaimed a man is outside, if he is not admired central his own home he is like a bird with admirable feathers, admirable on the alfresco but accustomed within."

From 1967 to 1969, during the Nigerian civilian war, if the eastern allotment of Nigeria attempted to secede, Ekwensi served as a government advice administrator the adventures from which he acclimated to address the 1976 anecdotal atypical Survive the Peace. which realistically portrayed the activities of a radio announcer in the deathwatch of the civilian war in Biafra.who in his accomplishment to accumulate his family, encounters the violence, destruction, refugees, and abatement operations that such anarchy engenders. Through flashbacks, Ekwensi aswell depicts the war itself giving a post-mortem on the just-concluded , interrogates the problems of actual in the alleged peace. It looks for instance at the affecting fate of James Odugo, the radio announcer who survives the war alone to be cut down on the alley by burglary above soldiers.

In such aboriginal works as the collections Ikolo the Wrestler and Added Ibo Tales, and An African Night's Entertainment, the atypical Burning Grass, and the adolescent works The Leopard's Claw and Juju Rock, Ekwensi told belief in a rural setting.

Ekwensi connected to broadcast above the 1960s, and a allotment of his afterwards works are the atypical Divided We Stand (1980) in which he lampooned the Nigerian civilian war, the novella Motherless Baby (1980), and The Restless City-limits and Christmas Gold (1975), Behind the Convent Wall (1987), and Gone to Mecca (1991).

Ekwensi aswell appear a amount of works for children.such as Ikolo the Wrestler and Added Ibo Tales (1947) and The Leopard's Claw (1950). In the 1960s, he wrote An African Night's Entertainment (1962), The Abounding Elephant-Bird (1965), and Trouble in Anatomy Six (1966). Over time, Ekwensi produced added books, mostly for children, which admitting they may not accept been internationally acclaimed, were nonetheless able-bodied accepted and apprehend all over Nigeria and Africa. They included Rainmaker (1965), Iska (1966), Coal Camp Boy (1971) Samankwe in the aberrant Forest (1973), Motherless Baby (1980), The Restless City-limits and Christmas Gold (1975), Samankwe and the Highway Robbers (1975), Behind the Convent Wall (1987), Gone to Mecca (1991), Masquerade Time! (1992), and King Forever! (1992). In 2006, he completed plan on two added books; "Tortoise and the Brown Monkey", a abbreviate chance and "Another Freedom".

Gratifyingly Ekwensi is still writing, He has appear several titles as When Adulation Whispers, Divided We Stand, Jagua Nana's Daughter and King for Ever! all accompanying to beforehand works.

When Adulation Whispers like Jagua Nana revolves about a actual adorable woman with assorted suitors. But whilst she thinks she has won the adulation of her activity her ancestor expects her to get affiliated to an beforehand man in an abiding marriage.

Divided We Stand (1980) was accounting in the calefaction of the Biafra war itself, admitting appear later. It reverses the accustomed acumen that accord is strength, assuming how ethnicity, division, and abhorrence accompany about distrust, displacement, and war itself.

Jagua Nana's Daughter (1986) revolves about Jagua's daughter's alarming seek for her mother arch her to acquisition not alone her mother but a accomplice as well. She is able to get affiliated to a awful placed able as she, clashing her mother, is a able as well. She appropriately assets the aegis and aegis she desires.

King for Ever! (1992) satirises the admiration of African leaders to bolster themselves in power. Sinanda's ascent to ability from apprehensive accomplishments does not anticipate his aggressive appetite from aerial to the acme breadth he was now ambitious to godhead

In the decades back Ekwensi began writing, the Nigerian readership has changed. Clashing the canicule of the Onitsha Market fiction, if books were printed inexpensively and awash cheaply to clothing accepted tastes at the about-face of the millennium few publishing companies controlled the best of books published; book prices fabricated books generally go above the ability of the masses, belted mostly to schools and libraries, which baby to album and advisory materials. With assorted forms of media accretion in popularity, the allurement to apprehend has fallen. With beneath humans account for pleasure, novels are in little demand. Because of these circumstances, artistic writers suffer. Of this downside, Ekwensi told Larson, "Journalists advance here, but artistic writers get absent and the adroitness gets done out of them if they accept to yield the aliment and adulate home."

At a accessible address in 2000, quoted by Kole Ade-Odutola in Africa News, the aged but still active Ekwensi bidding his admiration to "build and breeding adolescent minds in the community and traditions of their communities" through his writings. He explained, "African writers of the twentieth aeon affiliated the articulate abstract of our ancestors, and architecture on that, placed at the centre-stage of their fiction, the ethics by which we as Africans had lived for centuries. It is those ethics that accomplish us the Africans that we are--distinguishing amid acceptable and evil, amends and injustice, abuse and freedom." In tune with the times, he had started self-publishing his writings on the Internet. Despite the vagaries of the African publishing world, at age 80 Ekwensi was still advancing his ambition because as he wrote in his article for The Essential Ekwensi 15 years earlier, "The achievement I accept acquired from autograph can never be quantified."


Beier, Ulli ed., Introduction to African Literature (1967);

Breitinger, Eckhard, "Literature for Adolescent Readers and Apprenticeship in Multicultural Contexts," in Language and Abstract in Multicultural Contexts, edited by Satendra Nandan, Uinveristy of South Pacific, 1983.

· , Volume 117: Caribbean and Black African Writers, Gale, 1992. Dictionary of Arcane Biography

Dathorne, O. R. The Black Mind A History of African Literature. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1974.

Emenyonu, Ernest, Cyprian Ekwensi. Evans Brothers, 1974.

Emenyonu, Ernest, editor. The Essential Ekwensi. Heinemann Educational Books, 1987.

Larson, Charles R., The Emergence of African Fiction. Indiana University Press, 1971

Larson, Charles R. The Ordeal of the African Writer. London: Zed Books, 2001.

Lindfors, Bernth, 'Nigerian Satirist' in ALT5

Laurence, . Margaret Connected Drums and Cannons: Nigerian Dramatists and Novelists, 1952-1966 (1968).

Mphahlele, Ezekiel

Palmer Eustace. The Growth of the African Novel. Studies in African literature. London: Heinemann, 1979.

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